19 male for women

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Try out PMC Labs and tell us what you think. Learn More. Box , Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. But it is now becoming clear that being male is also a factor. The epidemiological findings reported across different parts of the world indicated higher morbidity and mortality in males than females. While it is still too early to determine why the gender gap is emerging, this article point to several possible factors such as higher expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 ACE 2; receptors for coronavirus in male than female, sex-based immunological differences driven by sex hormone and X chromosome.

Furthermore, a large part of this difference in of deaths is caused by gender behavior lifestyle , i. Lastly, studies reported that women had more responsible attitude toward the Covid pandemic than men. Irresponsible attitude among men reversibly affect their undertaking of preventive measures such as frequent handwashing, wearing of face mask, and stay at home orders.

The world is in the midst of the coronavirus disease Covid pandemic, an outbreak which was first reported in December , Wuhan city, the capital of Hubei province in China [ 1 ]. By Jan 7, , Chinese scientists had isolated, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 SARS-CoV-2 , initially known as a novel coronavirus nCoV , from these patients with virus-infected pneumonia [ 2 ], which was later deated coronavirus disease Covid in February , by World Health Organization WHO.

After comparing with coronavirus from other animals, it was established that snakes are the most likely wildlife source for the SARS-CoV-2 [ 4 ]. Additionally, a study by Benvenuto et al. On the other hand, SARS-CoV-2 has also demonstrated an ability to cause severe disease among certain groups, including older populations and individuals with underlying health conditions such as obesity, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes [ 1 , 7 ].

Nevertheless, a clear picture of the epidemiology of this Covid is not yet well understood, but it is now becoming clear that being male is also a factor [ 1 , 8 , 9 ]. While it is still too early to determine why the gender gap is emerging, this article point to several possible factors such as genetics, immunology, and behavioral as the associated factors. The expression and distribution of the receptor influence the route of virus infection which has a major implication for understanding the pathogenesis and dictate the therapeutic strategies [ 10 ].

This means that an organism whose expression of ACE 2 protein is high has a facilitated environment for pathogenesis of coronavirus. Now, having this positive correlation between ACE 2 and coronavirus, different studies quantified the expression of ACE 2 proteins in human cells based on gender ethnicity, for example, in studying the expression level and pattern of human ACE 2 using a single-cell RNA-sequencing RNA-seq , analysis indicated that Asian males had higher expression of ACE 2 than female [ 14 ]. Additionally, there was an evidence of differences in expression of ACE 2 between different ethnicity [ 11 ].

On the other hand, in establishing the expression of ACE 2 in the primary affected organ, a study conducted in Chinese population found that expression of ACE 2 in human lungs was extremely expressed in Asian male than female [ 10 ]. To generate an appropriately controlled response during infections, immunological checkpoints, such as the inhibitory CD receptor CDR , greatly play a great role in balancing the immune system during microbial infection by stimulating and controlling hyperimmune mediated response [ 15 ]. CDR is found in myeloid receptor [ 16 ] and expressed on macrophages, granulocytes, and dendritic cells DCs , and it also expressed on other immune cells components such as T cells, B cells, and natural killer cells NK cells [ 17 ].

A study by Karnam and colleagues [ 17 ] reveled that CDCDR and sex are host factors that together determine the outcome of viral infection. In the study conducted in mice, lack of CDR aling strongly enhanced type I interferon IFN production and viral clearance and improved the outcome of mouse hepatitis coronavirus infection, particularly in female mice. This means that organisms with high CDR aling have an enhance clearance of viral infection. A review which looked on association between sex difference in immune responses concluded that sex-based immunological differences contribute to variations in the susceptibility to infectious diseases and responses to vaccines in males and females.

For example, sex-based differences in human leucocytes antigen HLA alleles and genes that encode for interleukin IL , IL-4, IL, and the IL receptor, have each been associated with differential antibody responses to vaccines against measles, mumps, hepatitis A, tetanus, and diphtheria in children and adults where hormonal mechanisms are hypothesized to cause this effect [ 18 ].

Another review documented that women, especially during their reproductive years, are at increased risk of developing autoimmune diseases but are more resistant to infections than men. This is possibly mediated by several factors including sex hormones [ 19 ].

The concept of sex-based immunological differences driven by sex hormone and X chromosome has been well described by Elgendy et al. Since the first report of Covid case in Wuhan, China, many clinical and epidemiological studies are coming out. ly, much emphasis was initially placed on the elderly or those who have preexisting health conditions such as obesity, hypertension, and diabetes as being at risk of dying from the virus, but we are seeing with every country that provides us with sex-disaggregated data that men are more likely to die from the virus [ 21 ].

Accessed April 19, Accessed April 19, have confirmed the pattern. It is of no doubts, a part of this is biology genetics and immunology , but a large part of this difference is also driven by gender behavior life style , such as far higher levels of smoking and drinking among men compared to women [ 9 ]. Further, the recent study conducted in Spain one of the hardest hit countries in Europe reported that women had more responsible attitude toward the Covid pandemic than men [ 22 ]. This may reversibly affect their undertaking of preventive measures such as frequent hand washing, face masking, and stay at home orders.

The biological differences in the immune systems between men and women exist which may impact our ability to fight an infection including SARSCoV Generally, females are more resistant to infections than men, and this is possibly mediated by several factors including sex hormones and high expression of coronavirus receptors ACE 2 in men but also life style, such as higher levels of smoking and drinking among men as compared to women. Additionally, women have more responsible attitude toward the Covid pandemic than men. This may reversibly affect the undertaking of preventive measures such as frequent hand washing, wearing of face mask, and stay at home orders.

The author would like to thank the editor s for accepting and commenting on the manuscript. This article is part of the Topical Collection on Covid Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. SN Compr Clin Med. George M. Author information Article notes Copyright and information Disclaimer. Bwire, : moc. Corresponding author. Accepted May This article is made available via the PMC Open Access Subset for unrestricted research re-use and secondary analysis in any form or by any means with acknowledgement of the original source. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Keywords: Covid, Morbidity, Mortality, Epidemiology.

Introduction The world is in the midst of the coronavirus disease Covid pandemic, an outbreak which was first reported in December , Wuhan city, the capital of Hubei province in China [ 1 ]. Genetics The expression and distribution of the receptor influence the route of virus infection which has a major implication for understanding the pathogenesis and dictate the therapeutic strategies [ 10 ]. Immunology To generate an appropriately controlled response during infections, immunological checkpoints, such as the inhibitory CD receptor CDR , greatly play a great role in balancing the immune system during microbial infection by stimulating and controlling hyperimmune mediated response [ 15 ].

Behavior Since the first report of Covid case in Wuhan, China, many clinical and epidemiological studies are coming out. Conclusion The biological differences in the immune systems between men and women exist which may impact our ability to fight an infection including SARSCoV Acknowledgments The author would like to thank the editor s for accepting and commenting on the manuscript.

Compliance with Ethical Standards Conflict of Interest The author declares that he has no conflict of interests. References 1. Clinical characteristics of coronavirus disease in China. N Engl J Med ;1— N Engl J Med. Emerging coronaviruses: genome structure, replication, and pathogenesis. J Med Virol. The new coronavirus epidemic: evidence for virus evolution. Clin Infect Dis. Clinical characteristics of Covid in New York City. Int J Infect Dis. BioRxiv [internet]. Cell Discov. Genomic characterisation and epidemiology of novel coronavirus: implications for virus origins and receptor binding.

The S proteins of human coronavirus NL63 and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus bind overlapping regions of ACE2. BioRxiv Prepr. Characterization of the CD receptor family in mice and humans and their interactions with CD J Immunol. CD receptor controls sex-specific TLR7 responses to viral infection. PLoS Pathog. Sex differences in immune responses.

19 male for women

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Gender Differences in Patients With COVID Focus on Severity and Mortality